miércoles, 19 de enero de 2011

Apple History

Apple's history goes back much further than 1976 when he formally founded in 1950, Steve Wozniak is born, it was totally different from kids his age, a lover of electronics. At thirteen he won a science prize for building his own machine to subtract and add, with transistors that gave Fairchild an engineer, "I became interested in electronics because of him" he would say later the "Woz." In 1968, at the age of eighteen, went to college in Colorado, eventually moved to California to continue at the University of Berkeley, Engineering and Computer Science. Wosniak was related to Steve Jobs, who was five years younger than him. Jobs grew up in Mountain View, and her adoptive parents, not well known on high technology.

After Jobs' family, he moved to Los Altos, Woz met him through a mutual friend, just before Jobs fourteenth birthday. Although shared his interest in computers, differed in their way of being. Woz was fond of putting their ideas into practice, however Jobs, seemed to see electronics as a means to an end. Woz would say, "... make me not so important as running behind the ball ..." referring to tennis. Woz, I had no ambition, Jobs had nothing on her head it.

As Wozniak, Jobs did not have much passion for school, no interest to them academic style and, therefore, see picture of them with beards, trousers worn and Zandali. At that time, Jobs takes a job at Atari, while Wozniak had taken a leave Berkeley to go to work at Hewlett-Packard, the design of calculators. Atari was a new company in Sunnyvale that made video games. Jobs was hired by Atari, simply because it was filed one day there. Al Alcorn co-founder of Atari would say, "The personnel director comes to me and tells me, that was a hippie who seemed to have come from the mountains, the guy asks me ...-- I call the police?" - " . Alcorn was intrigued and decided to recruit him.

While attending a computer exhibition in San Francisco, Wozniak discovered a small maker of semiconductor chips being sold for $ 20. It was an Intel chip but the 6205 from MOS Technology, was more than enough for what I had in mind. At last built a computer, though it was fully assembled. Despite its appearance of unfinished product, proposed an improvement on the Altair, and he used fewer components. Woz In this way, he astonished his friends at the Homebrew Club. But as expected in this story, Woz just liked that, did not have the spirit of 'ambition' that I did Jobs, who saw this 'wonder' In other words, if a few fans were astonished, what could happen to a bigger market?. Jobs intuitively understood the significance of what Gordon Moore had recognized a decade ago, due to miniaturization, the chips would necessarily be cheaper and would be available to everyone. Jobs thought: What if Wozniak could be persuaded to make your computer in great numbers?. Woz would remain the engineer, and Jobs seller.

On April 1, 1976, Jobs was twenty one years and Woz twenty-six, Jobs met Mike Markkula, who agreed to invest and Apple Computer was created Markkula contributed his expertise on issues and a check for $ 250,000.00 USD. On that occasion also provided the first President to Apple, Mike Scott and Jobs helps to write your business plan, with estimated sales of $ 500 million in 10 years.

How they agreed on "Apple Computer" depends on which version of history you. accept. It could have been a recordatrio of good memories of his days Jobs in orchard in Oregon, or intermittent diet based on fruits. Or "Apple" could have been simply a way to create a name with a good sound, quite American in a high-tech industry not known to radiate warmth.

The original Apple logo was unimaginative, showing someone under an apple tree, but the company came out with the friendly apple rainbow, which has remained one of the best known brands in the world of computing.

Apple's history through its products

1977: The Apple II hits the market. Unlike the original Apple I kit, which cost $ 666 and whose appeal was limited, the Apple II was the first computer designed for a mass market, thanks to its low profile housing including keyboard, power supply and capacity to produce color graphics.

A former colleague of Mike Markkula in Fairchild semiconductor company, Michael Scott, is named president. Scout gives Apple a professional business management and infrastructure to the company.

1978: Apple launches the Apple Disk II floppy drive.

Apple Disk II floppy drive stores 110 K in 5.25-inch disks. Priced at $ 495, the creation of Steve Wozniak costs half floppy drives competition and is more reliable than tape storage systems (cassette type).

Honorable Mention Apple III project begins.
Eager to get a follower of the popular success of the Apple II, Apple launches the Apple III project, for the disaster, with engineer Wendell Sander to the head.

1979: Apple visit the Xerox PARC research center
Apple engineers take a look at the future of computing on a visit to the laboratories of its Silicon Valley neighbors. Lisa and Mac projects quickly adopting graphical user interface as part of its key features.

Special mention: get VisiCalc, the first worksheet.
Personal Software releases VisiCalc software: the first spreadsheet that works exclusively on the Apple II, leading to the top of the sales figures on this computer.

1980: Apple goes public.

It is the largest IPO since Ford did on 1956. Apple debuts on the stock market with a value of 1,800 million dollars. Of the 1,000 Apple employees, 40 are immediately millionaires through their stock options at Apple.

Honorable Mention Apple III goes on sale.

With prices between 4,340 and 7,800 dollars, the Apple III was supposed to be the flagship for computer companies Apple. However, due to reliability problems, was a total failure.

1981: IBM introduces the IBM PC.
IBM launched its personal computer at a price of $ 1,565. Although its specs are not impressive, does not seem to matter to the public and in two years, IBM's market share to Apple's reach.

First seizure at Apple. After black Wednesday in which 40 employees are laid off, Markkula replaces Michael Scott as president, Jobs was named chairman (chairman of the board) and Wozniak takes a leave of absence.

1982: Microsoft begins to develop applications for Apple.
Microsoft empiza to develop GUI applications based on secret project for the Macintosh, but also began working on a GUI (Windows) for the IBM PC and clones.

Special Mention: Raskin left the project Macintosh.
Jef Raskin, one of the pioneers in the development of the graphical interface and project leader for the Macintosh leaves it Jobs interference had taken command of the project.

1983: John Sculley was named president and CEO.
John Sculley, president of Pepsi succumbs to offer Jobs to "change the world" as president and CEO of Apple (legend has it that Jobs, to convince him to go to work with him at Apple, Sculley told something as "Do you spend your life selling sugared water or do you want to change the world.")

Special Mention: Apple launches Lisa.
With a price of about $ 9,995, the Lisa is the first commercial computer mouse and graphical interface, but it is a fiasco due to low speed, its high price and incompatibility.

1984: Apple launches the Macintosh. The advance and Macintosh, "the computer for the rest of us" finally hits the market. It includes 128 K of memory and has a starting price of $ 2,495.

Honorable Mention ad "1984" is displayed in the American Football League.
Contrary to the opinion of the board, Apple announces the Macintosh with the commercial "1984", directed by Ridley Scott, the intermediate relay final American Football League.

1985: Steve Jobs leaves Apple. After losing a dispute with the board and in particular with John Sculley, Jobs leaving Apple, taking with them a group of loyal employees who later founded the computer company NeXT.

Special Mention: Microsoft gets license Apple technology. In exchange for delaying the Windows version of Excel, Apple ensures that Microsoft licensed to use some Mac technology

1986: Starts off Desktop Publishing Combining a Mac Plus, PageMaker software and LaserWriter Plus printer, printers, graphic artists and publishing professionals can create documents for a fraction of the cost of traditional equipment.

Special Mention: Apple launches the Apple IIGS
Recognizing that the range Apple II still exceeded those of the Mac, Apple executives give the go-ahead to the launch of Apple IIGS, which priced at $ 999, including many features of the Mac, like a mouse and keyboard ADB, QuickDraw technology and graphical user interface.

1987: Apple releases HyperCard
Apple Introduces Bill Atkinson's HyperCard software at Macworld Expo in Boston. This free program provides a simple programming environment and a graphical database that allows ordinary users to create useful programs, called "stacks" (stacks) of HyperCard.

Special Mention: Newton Project Begins
Looking to reinvent personal computing, Apple accepts the proposal of Steve Sakom hardware engineer to create a portable device with wireless networking and handwriting recognition.

1988: Microsoft Apple complaint
Seeing that the Mac slowly lose market share over Wintel clones. Apple complaint arguing that Windows 2.03 Mrosoft infringe patents audiovisual Lisa and the Mac

Honorable Mention goes out into the market the first NeXT computer
Only the release of 1988, the Mac IIx can be compared to the design of the Cube of NeXT Computer, a black, cubic computer running a Unix-derived operating system.

1989: The judges rejected claims of Apple to Microsoft
The trial judge dismissed all allegations of Apple, but 10 of them, against Microsoft two patent infringement. Apple executives are struggling to find a way to boost the dwindling market share of Mac

Special Mention: Apple launches the Mac Portable
Apple launches, priced at $ 5,799, the first Mac portable. A computer with a weight of seven kilos "fully equipped" with active matrix LCD screen, full keyboard, trackball, sound output and optional hard disk.

1990: Appears the first low-cost Mac
Responding to criticism about the high price of their products, Apple released a trio of economic Macintos: Macintosh Classic (999 dollars), the Macintosh LC (2,400 dollars) and the Macintosh IIsi (3,800 dollars). Without some limitations that affect them artificially imposed by Apple, sold so well that Apple's margins fall, unnerving shareholders.

Special Mention: Apple invests in ARM
Apple pays $ 2.5 million by 43 per cent of ARM, a manufacturer of processors Newton. By the end of the decade, Apple would sell the stock for a value of $ 792 million, covering all losses of the Newton project and keeping the company afloat in the darkest moments.

1991: Apple launches the first PowerBook recovering from the fiasco of the Mac Portable, Apple laptops start to create conditions with the release of the PowerBook 100, 140 and 170. All Macintosh fully functional with a lightweight design. Apple becomes the opponent to beat in the laptop market.

Special Mention: Apple partners with IBM
Apple announces agreement with IBM which created two new companies, Kaleida: to develop a multimedia engine, and Taligent, which would deal with creating a new genarción operating system, code-named "Pink." Also, IBM and Apple joined forces with Motorola to create a standard for computers based on RISC processors, Motorola's PowerPC.

1992: Microsoft launches Windows 3.1
After years of trying to reach the usability of the Macintosh, Windows 3.1 is already seen as good enough. 15 per cent of Mac market share begins to erode rapidly.

Special Mention: Jonathan Ive joined Apple
With 25 years, the London designer Jonathan Ive joined the group Apple's industrial design to work on the creation of the Newton MessagePad 110. In six years, Ive become the creator of the design of the iMac, the product that "resurrected" to Apple.

1993: Apple launches the Newton
Priced at $ 699, Newton hits the market and opens the world of personal assistant PDA. Your system unreliable handwriting recognition and disappointing to most means to Sculley, its chief supporter, as CEO of Apple.

Special Mention: Apple claims against Microsoft are rejected Apple lost any hope of stopping Microsoft once their applications are rejected patent violation.

1994: Apple launches the first Power Macintosh
A decade after the launch of the Macintosh, a computer with 8 MHz processor, Apple released the first Macintosh with a PowerPC processor, at speeds from 60 MHz, and maintaining application compatibility for 68x0 architecture.

Special Mention: Apple granted the first license to produce Mac clones
Desperate to increase their market share, Apple, finally agrees to license to manufacture tapered Mac.

1995: Microsoft launches Windows 95
With the launch, valued at about $ 200 million, from Windows 95, the differences between the Mac user interface and Windows fade in the minds of users.

Special mention: get the first Mac clones Power Computing, the first manufacturer who had been licensed by Apple, releases its first Mac clone, faster and cheaper than those offered by Apple itself.

1996: Apple announces the acquisition of NeXT
The newcomer Apple CEO Gilbert Amelio, staggers to users canceling the Copland project to create an operating system. Instead the company acquires and Steve Jobs announced that the future system would be based on the architecture of NeXT.

Special Mention: Amelio Apple gets funding
Amelio get the necessary funding to keep the company afloat, which had been in an untenable position with a cash value of only five weeks of inventory.

1997: CEO Steve Jobs was named "interim" from Apple Officially hired as a consultant after the acquisition of NeXT, Jobs Amelio get the expulsion of the company and assumes the role of interim CEO.

Special Mention: Apple releases Mac OS 8 To appease users brtecve awaited the release of a next-generation operating system, Apple released Mac OS 8, which features a PowerPC-native Finder, a more attractive appearance, contextual menus, the ability to share a personal web and other technologies.

1998: original iMac comes Dubbed as "the personal computer of the Internet era for the rest of us," Apple's iMac, whose starting price is $ 1,299, comes to announce that Apple is still a computer company to consider.

Special Mention: Apple Announces Mac OS X strategy
At the WWDC developer conference, Steve Jobs communicates these to Mac OS 8.5 and Rhapsody are just transitory stages until the release of Mac OS X, operating system verdaeramente advanced to maintain compatibility with older software.

1999: Apple launches iBook, the first wireless computer Apple applies its "iMac strategy" for the laptop and launches the first portable consumer oriented market, the iBook, which may include internal AirPort card off and helps the wireless industry.

Special Mention: Apple releases Mac OS 9 Mac OS 9 is the latest major update for the operating system "old Apple", and is the starting point for Mac OS X multiusario capabilities, password protected access, automatic updates and Web browser.

2000: Steve Jobs is Apple's permanent CEO Hoping that the return of Apple is here to stay, Steve Jobs CEO accepts permanent post, which should share with his position as CEO of his other company, Pixar.

Special Mention: Apple launches the G4 Cube
Apple computer launches a cubic shape, with a dramatic industrial design for the market "prosumer." Despite its appeal, its high price and limited expansion options make the sales are disappointing.

2001: Apple Introduces iPod Nobody is able to realize at the time, but the small iPod with a disk of 5 GB and a price of about $ 400, capable of storing 1,000 songs in MP3, Apple and even soon transform the music industry.

Special Mention: Apple releases Mac OS X After years of waiting, Mac users finally have an OS with protected memory, symmetric multiprocessing, multitasking preeemptiva and more. However, the first version of Mac OS X is slow, there are few native applications and is, in short, ready to be adopted generally.

2002: Apple releases Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar
The new version of Mac OS X operating system appears as a fully mature. Much faster than its predecessor, includes many improvements to the Finder and includes new applications such as Calendar, iChat, Mail email program, etc.

Special Mention: Apple says goodbye to boot Mac OS 9
Apple announced that from January 2003 will not boot their machines with Mac OS 9. However, older applications may continue through the Classic environment of Mac OS X.

2003: Apple unveils its online music store iTunes Music Store
Apple opens its download store with more than 200,000 songs available at a price of 99 cents each.

Special Mention: Apple announces "the year of the laptop"
Apple announces "the year of mobile" and launches the first portable 17-inch PowerBook and a new compact 12 "screen, which becomes the smallest laptop Apple has ever made.

2004: The iPod is shrinking Against the tendency to add more storage capacity on the iPod, Apple launches mini iPiod with 4 GB of capacity, aluminum body available in several colors.

Honorable Mention iMac flattens
The new iMac G5 has a striking design in which all components are in the same housing of the display, on a set with a thickness of only 2.5 inches.

2005: Apple announced its switch to Intel architecture After more than 20 years of Macintosh-based Motorola and IBM processors, Apple announced that future processors will incorporate Intel Mac.

Special mention: the video comes to iPod Looking to do with the video as before with music, Apple includes capabilities for video playback on iPod.
Information extracted from: (http://www.idg.es/macworld/content.asp?idn=46823)

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